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The purpose of this article is to describe these basic NDE techniques and discuss some of the advantages and disadvantages of the different methods. A common recommendation is to use solvent and not potable water when cleaning stainless asrm parts, such as turbine rotors, that will be highly stressed when in service.
Advertisement 4 Go to Page 1 2 3 4 Edit Story. This method substitutes fluorescent penetrating oil for the visible dye penetrant. Another technique involves the use of an ultraviolet light to view the surface discontinuities.
This is typically done with a special cleaning solvent. Penetrating oils typically contain a red dye and are sprayed or brushed onto the area of the material being asrm.
Link to Active This link will always route to the current Active version of the standard. A scratch or a pore can easily be misinterpreted as a crack or flaw, and this can lead to unnecessary and costly repairs. Energy-Tech Magazine Contact us.
The correct term for a discontinuity is an indication, which is not necessarily a crack or a flaw. An example of a gear tooth crack that was made more visible using a dye penetrant examination is shown in Figure 1. The developer brings the penetrating oil out of the discontinuities by a blotting action. Liquid penetrant testing Liquid penetrant inspection is the most popular method to check for surface cracks because it is simple and no special equipment is required.
Dye Penetrant Testing
The surface then needs to be solvent cleaned to remove any greases or oils. Non-destructive examination NDE is used to detect cracks and other flaws in a part without rendering the part unusable by performing destructive testing.
Some equipment manufacturers allow some surface indications, depending on their size and location on a particular part. Pre-clean the surfaces to be inspected. Then the surface must be allowed to dry.
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It is the responsibility of e1655-02 user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory asstm prior to use. This can take minutes after the developer is applied.
The reason is that some potable water sources contain chlorine, which can leave a residue on e156-02 surface and can lead to cracking in some stainless steels. To avoid this, any indications should be investigated by polishing and re-evaluating the indication.
Active view current version of standard. For this purpose there must be a separate code or specification or a specific agreement to define the type, size, location, and direction of indications considered acceptable, and those considered unacceptable. Work Item s – astj revisions of this standard. This technique can be used on a variety of ferrous and non-ferrous materials, including steel, stainless steel, aluminum, bronze, tungsten carbide, ceramics and plastics.
Non-destructive examination basics Patrick J. A suitable waiting time allows the penetrant to enter the surface discontinuities, and then excess penetrant can be removed. As soon as the material is dry, the developer is applied. The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps:. With this technique, liquid penetrant is applied to the surface of a material and is drawn into surface discontinuities such as cracks, pits and seams by capillary action.
Also, there are no universal acceptance criteria on the maximum allowable size of an indication. It is a common misconception to label a discontinuity as a crack. After application of the developer, the visual inspection is done with a black light.
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Agreement by the user and the supplier regarding specific techniques is strongly recommended. They are nondestructive testing methods for detecting discontinuities that are open to the surface such as cracks, seams, laps, cold shuts, laminations, through leaks, or lack of fusion and are applicable to in-process, final, and maintenance examination. The part then needs to be cleaned to remove the penetrant and the developer.
Some of the most popular NDE methods include: The visible dye penetrant technique involves the following steps: In most cases, the discontinuities are visible to the naked eye without liquid penetrant testing.
Box Dubuque, IA Phone: The penetrant that is trapped in any discontinuities will glow when viewed under a black light. Referenced Documents purchase separately The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard. Care must be taken not to overly clean and remove the penetrant from the discontinuities.
Cracks typically show up as red lines and pits usually look like red dots. These inspections can increase the reliability of the part by providing early detection of flaws that could lead to a failure. SI units are provided for information only. It should be pointed out, however, that after indications have been produced, they must be interpreted or classified and then evaluated. One of the most critical aspects of liquid penetrant testing is interpreting and evaluating the discontinuities.
This might involve sandblasting, wire brushing, etc.